# Chapter 9: Bipartite Graphs

%load_ext autoreload
%matplotlib inline
%config InlineBackend.figure_format = 'retina'
import warnings
warnings.filterwarnings('ignore')


## Introduction

from IPython.display import YouTubeVideo



In this chapter, we will look at bipartite graphs and their applications.

## What are bipartite graphs?

As the name suggests, bipartite have two (bi) node partitions (partite). In other words, we can assign nodes to one of the two partitions. (By contrast, all of the graphs that we have seen before are unipartite: they only have a single partition.)

### Rules for bipartite graphs

With unipartite graphs, you might remember a few rules that apply.

Firstly, nodes and edges belong to a set. This means the node set contains only unique members, i.e. no node can be duplicated. The same applies for the edge set.

On top of those two basic rules, bipartite graphs add an additional rule: Edges can only occur between nodes of different partitions. In other words, nodes within the same partition are not allowed to be connected to one another.

### Applications of bipartite graphs

Where do we see bipartite graphs being used? Here's one that is very relevant to e-commerce, which touches our daily lives:

We can model customer purchases of products using a bipartite graph. Here, the two node sets are customer nodes and product nodes, and edges indicate that a customer $C$ purchased a product $P$.

On the basis of this graph, we can do interesting analyses, such as finding customers that are similar to one another on the basis of their shared product purchases.

Can you think of other situations where a bipartite graph model can be useful?

## Dataset

Here's another application in crime analysis, which is relevant to the example that we will use in this chapter:

This bipartite network contains persons who appeared in at least one crime case as either a suspect, a victim, a witness or both a suspect and victim at the same time. A left node represents a person and a right node represents a crime. An edge between two nodes shows that the left node was involved in the crime represented by the right node.

This crime dataset was also sourced from Konect.

from nams import load_data as cf
for n, d in G.nodes(data=True):
G.nodes[n]["degree"] = G.degree(n)


If you inspect the nodes, you will see that they contain a special metadata keyword: bipartite. This is a special keyword that NetworkX can use to identify nodes of a given partition.

### Visualize the crime network

To help us get our bearings right, let's visualize the crime network.

import nxviz as nv
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(7, 7))
nv.circos(G, sort_by="degree", group_by="bipartite", node_color_by="bipartite", node_enc_kwargs={"size_scale": 3})

<AxesSubplot:> ### Exercise: Extract each node set

A useful thing to be able to do is to extract each partition's node set. This will become handy when interacting with NetworkX's bipartite algorithms later on.

Write a function that extracts all of the nodes from specified node partition. It should also raise a plain Exception if no nodes exist in that specified partition. (as a precuation against users putting in invalid partition names).

import networkx as nx

def extract_partition_nodes(G: nx.Graph, partition: str):
nodeset = [_ for _, _ in _______ if ____________]
if _____________:
raise Exception(f"No nodes exist in the partition {partition}!")
return nodeset

from nams.solutions.bipartite import extract_partition_nodes
# Uncomment the next line to see the answer.
# extract_partition_nodes??


## Bipartite Graph Projections

In a bipartite graph, one task that can be useful to do is to calculate the projection of a graph onto one of its nodes.

What do we mean by the "projection of a graph"? It is best visualized using this figure:

from nams.solutions.bipartite import draw_bipartite_graph_example, bipartite_example_graph
from nxviz import annotate
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

bG = bipartite_example_graph()
pG = nx.bipartite.projection.projected_graph(bG, "abcd")
ax = draw_bipartite_graph_example()
plt.sca(ax)
annotate.parallel_labels(bG, group_by="bipartite")
plt.sca(ax)
annotate.arc_labels(pG) As shown in the figure above, we start first with a bipartite graph with two node sets, the "alphabet" set and the "numeric" set. The projection of this bipartite graph onto the "alphabet" node set is a graph that is constructed such that it only contains the "alphabet" nodes, and edges join the "alphabet" nodes because they share a connection to a "numeric" node. The red edge on the right is basically the red path traced on the left.

### Computing graph projections

How does one compute graph projections using NetworkX? Turns out, NetworkX has a bipartite submodule, which gives us all of the facilities that we need to interact with bipartite algorithms.

First of all, we need to check that the graph is indeed a bipartite graph. NetworkX provides a function for us to do so:

from networkx.algorithms import bipartite

bipartite.is_bipartite(G)

True


Now that we've confirmed that the graph is indeed bipartite, we can use the NetworkX bipartite submodule functions to generate the bipartite projection onto one of the node partitions.

First off, we need to extract nodes from a particular partition.

person_nodes = extract_partition_nodes(G, "person")
crime_nodes = extract_partition_nodes(G, "crime")


Next, we can compute the projection:

person_graph = bipartite.projected_graph(G, person_nodes)
crime_graph = bipartite.projected_graph(G, crime_nodes)


And with that, we have our projected graphs!

list(person_graph.edges(data=True))[0:5]

[('p1', 'p756', {}),
('p1', 'p694', {}),
('p1', 'p93', {}),
('p1', 'p336', {}),
('p2', 'p563', {})]

list(crime_graph.edges(data=True))[0:5]

[('c1', 'c2', {}),
('c1', 'c4', {}),
('c1', 'c3', {}),
('c2', 'c4', {}),
('c2', 'c3', {})]


Now, what is the interpretation of these projected graphs?

• For person_graph, we have found individuals who are linked by shared participation (whether witness or suspect) in a crime.
• For crime_graph, we have found crimes that are linked by shared involvement by people.

Just by this graph, we already can find out pretty useful information. Let's use an exercise that leverages what you already know to extract useful information from the projected graph.

### Exercise: find the crime(s) that have the most shared connections with other crimes

Find crimes that are most similar to one another on the basis of the number of shared connections to individuals.

Hint: This is a degree centrality problem!

import pandas as pd

def find_most_similar_crimes(cG: nx.Graph):
"""
Find the crimes that are most similar to other crimes.
"""
dcs = ______________
return ___________________

from nams.solutions.bipartite import find_most_similar_crimes
find_most_similar_crimes(crime_graph)

c110    0.136364
c47     0.070909
c23     0.070909
c95     0.063636
c14     0.061818
c352    0.060000
c432    0.060000
c160    0.058182
c417    0.058182
c525    0.058182
dtype: float64


### Exercise: find the individual(s) that have the most shared connections with other individuals

Now do the analogous thing for individuals!

def find_most_similar_people(pG: nx.Graph):
"""
Find the persons that are most similar to other persons.
"""
dcs = ______________
return ___________________

from nams.solutions.bipartite import find_most_similar_people
find_most_similar_people(person_graph)

p425    0.061594
p2      0.057971
p356    0.053140
p56     0.039855
p695    0.039855
p497    0.036232
p715    0.035024
p10     0.033816
p815    0.032609
p74     0.030193
dtype: float64


## Weighted Projection

Though we were able to find out which graphs were connected with one another, we did not record in the resulting projected graph the strength by which the two nodes were connected. To preserve this information, we need another function:

weighted_person_graph = bipartite.weighted_projected_graph(G, person_nodes)
list(weighted_person_graph.edges(data=True))[0:5]

[('p1', 'p756', {'weight': 1}),
('p1', 'p694', {'weight': 1}),
('p1', 'p93', {'weight': 1}),
('p1', 'p336', {'weight': 1}),
('p2', 'p563', {'weight': 1})]


### Exercise: Find the people that can help with investigating a crime's person.

Let's pretend that we are a detective trying to solve a crime, and that we right now need to find other individuals who were not implicated in the same exact crime as an individual was, but who might be able to give us information about that individual because they were implicated in other crimes with that individual.

Implement a function that takes in a bipartite graph G, a string person and a string crime, and returns a list of other persons that were not implicated in the crime, but were connected to the person via other crimes. It should return a ranked list, based on the number of shared crimes (from highest to lowest) because the ranking will help with triage.

list(G.neighbors('p1'))

['c1', 'c2', 'c3', 'c4']

def find_connected_persons(G, person, crime):
# Step 0: Check that the given "person" and "crime" are connected.
if _____________________________:
raise ValueError(f"Graph does not have a connection between {person} and {crime}!")

# Step 1: calculate weighted projection for person nodes.
person_nodes = ____________________________________
person_graph = bipartite.________________________(_, ____________)

# Step 2: Find neighbors of the given person node in projected graph.
candidate_neighbors = ___________________________________

# Step 3: Remove candidate neighbors from the set if they are implicated in the given crime.
for p in G.neighbors(crime):
if ________________________:
_____________________________

# Step 4: Rank-order the candidate neighbors by number of shared connections.
_________ = []
## You might need a for-loop here
return pd.DataFrame(__________).sort_values("________", ascending=False)

from nams.solutions.bipartite import find_connected_persons
find_connected_persons(G, 'p2', 'c10')

node weight
7 p67 4
4 p356 2
33 p338 2
16 p361 2
0 p563 1
35 p820 1
27 p439 1
28 p716 1
29 p5 1
30 p309 1
31 p304 1
32 p320 1
34 p39 1
37 p211 1
36 p587 1
25 p660 1
38 p665 1
39 p223 1
40 p186 1
41 p661 1
42 p499 1
43 p305 1
44 p620 1
45 p578 1
26 p608 1
23 p773 1
24 p401 1
12 p603 1
2 p4 1
3 p528 1
5 p475 1
6 p768 1
8 p48 1
9 p495 1
10 p710 1
11 p781 1
13 p286 1
1 p806 1
14 p300 1
15 p90 1
17 p782 1
18 p471 1
19 p690 1
20 p287 1
21 p449 1
22 p498 1
46 p360 1

## Degree Centrality

The degree centrality metric is something we can calculate for bipartite graphs. Recall that the degree centrality metric is the number of neighbors of a node divided by the total number of possible neighbors.

In a unipartite graph, the denominator can be the total number of nodes less one (if self-loops are not allowed) or simply the total number of nodes (if self loops are allowed).

### Exercise: What is the denominator for bipartite graphs?

from nams.solutions.bipartite import bipartite_degree_centrality_denominator
from nams.functions import render_html
render_html(bipartite_degree_centrality_denominator())


The total number of neighbors that a node can possibly have is the number of nodes in the other partition. This comes naturally from the definition of a bipartite graph, where nodes can only be connected to nodes in the other partition.

### Exercise: Which persons are implicated in the most number of crimes?

Find the persons (singular or plural) who are connected to the most number of crimes.

To do so, you will need to use nx.bipartite.degree_centrality, rather than the regular nx.degree_centrality function.

nx.bipartite.degree_centrality requires that you pass in a node set from one of the partitions so that it can correctly partition nodes on the other set. What is returned, though, is the degree centrality for nodes in both sets. Here is an example to show you how the function is used:

dcs = nx.bipartite.degree_centrality(my_graph, nodes_from_one_partition)

def find_most_crime_person(G, person_nodes):
dcs = __________________________
return ___________________________

from nams.solutions.bipartite import find_most_crime_person
find_most_crime_person(G, person_nodes)

'p815'


## Solutions

Here are the solutions to the exercises above.

from nams.solutions import bipartite
import inspect

print(inspect.getsource(bipartite))

import networkx as nx
import pandas as pd
from nams.functions import render_html

def extract_partition_nodes(G: nx.Graph, partition: str):
nodeset = [n for n, d in G.nodes(data=True) if d["bipartite"] == partition]
if len(nodeset) == 0:
raise Exception(f"No nodes exist in the partition {partition}!")
return nodeset

def bipartite_example_graph():
bG = nx.Graph()
bG.add_edges_from([("a", 1), ("b", 1), ("b", 3), ("c", 2), ("c", 3), ("d", 1)])

return bG

def draw_bipartite_graph_example():
"""Draw an example bipartite graph and its corresponding projection."""
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import nxviz as nv
from nxviz import annotate, plots, highlights

fig, ax = plt.subplots(nrows=1, ncols=2, figsize=(8, 4))
plt.sca(ax)
bG = bipartite_example_graph()
nv.parallel(bG, group_by="bipartite", node_color_by="bipartite")
annotate.parallel_group(bG, group_by="bipartite", y_offset=-0.5)
highlights.parallel_edge(bG, "a", 1, group_by="bipartite")
highlights.parallel_edge(bG, "b", 1, group_by="bipartite")

pG = nx.bipartite.projected_graph(bG, nodes=list("abcd"))
plt.sca(ax)
nv.arc(pG)
highlights.arc_edge(pG, "a", "b")
return ax

def find_most_similar_crimes(cG: nx.Graph):
"""
Find the crimes that are most similar to other crimes.
"""
dcs = pd.Series(nx.degree_centrality(cG))

def find_most_similar_people(pG: nx.Graph):
"""
Find the persons that are most similar to other persons.
"""
dcs = pd.Series(nx.degree_centrality(pG))

def find_connected_persons(G, person, crime):
"""Answer to exercise on people implicated in crimes"""
# Step 0: Check that the given "person" and "crime" are connected.
if not G.has_edge(person, crime):
raise ValueError(
f"Graph does not have a connection between {person} and {crime}!"
)

# Step 1: calculate weighted projection for person nodes.
person_nodes = extract_partition_nodes(G, "person")
person_graph = nx.bipartite.weighted_projected_graph(G, person_nodes)

# Step 2: Find neighbors of the given person node in projected graph.
candidate_neighbors = set(person_graph.neighbors(person))

# Step 3: Remove candidate neighbors from the set if they are implicated in the given crime.
for p in G.neighbors(crime):
if p in candidate_neighbors:
candidate_neighbors.remove(p)

# Step 4: Rank-order the candidate neighbors by number of shared connections.
data = []
for nbr in candidate_neighbors:
data.append(dict(node=nbr, weight=person_graph.edges[person, nbr]["weight"]))
return pd.DataFrame(data).sort_values("weight", ascending=False)

def bipartite_degree_centrality_denominator():
"""Answer to bipartite graph denominator for degree centrality."""

ans = """
The total number of neighbors that a node can _possibly_ have
is the number of nodes in the other partition.
This comes naturally from the definition of a bipartite graph,
where nodes can _only_ be connected to nodes in the other partition.
"""
return ans

def find_most_crime_person(G, person_nodes):
dcs = (
pd.Series(nx.bipartite.degree_centrality(G, person_nodes))
.sort_values(ascending=False)
.to_frame()
)
return dcs.reset_index().query("index.str.contains('p')").iloc["index"]